22 June 2016

Jewel History: The Peeresses at the Coronation (1911)

King George V and Queen Mary at their coronation, June 1911 (Photo: Wikimedia Commons)

"The Peeresses at the Coronation"
(originally published in the Patea Mail, 21 Aug 1911)

London, June 23 -- The purely social point of view of the Coronation [1] was almost extraordinarily interesting, and almost everyone of note in London at present was to be seen in various parts of the great Abbey. The assemblage began to gather at half-past six, and from then until nine o'clock the Gold Staff officers had a very difficult task to deal with the thousands of people who arrived and who had to be conducted to their seats.

Quite a number of peers and peeresses arrived in state coaches. These vehicles presented a very magnificent appearance, the more noteworthy being those owned by Lord Bute [2], which was of powder blue and apricot yellow; Lord Lonsdale [3], whose bright canary-colored coach was easily recognized; Lord Beauchamp [4]; Lord Cadogan [5], who was accompanied by Lady Cadogan and whose carriage of Cadogan blue and brown was superbly turned out; Lord and Lady Londonderry [6]; Lord and Lady Salisbury [7]; Lord and Lady Galway [8]; the Duke and Duchess of Somerset [9]; and others far too numerous to mention.

Consuelo Spencer-Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, at the 1911 coronation with her sons, John and Ivor

The peeresses' seats very soon began to fill up, and a more magnificent tout ensemble could not be imagined. Splendid tiaras and jewels of all kinds were to be seen and the fact that all were wearing the orthodox robes of crimson trimmed with ermine over white satin skirts contributed in no small degree to the beauty and uniformity of the spectacle.

In the front row of duchess sat, first of all, the Duchess of Norfolk [10]; then came the Duchess of Somerset, the Duchess of Beaufort [11], and then the Duchesses of Hamilton [12], Montrose [13], Portland [14], and Sutherland [15]. Further along on the side of the gangway in the same line were several duchesses, including the Dowager Duchess of Roxburghe [16], the Duchess of Leeds [17], the Duchess of Rutland [18], the Duchess of Buccleuch [19], and several others according to precedence. In the second row, immediately behind the Duchess of Norfolk, sat the Duchess of Roxburghe [20]; then came the Duchess of Manchester [21], the Duchess of Newcastle [22], the Duchess of Northumberland [23], the Duchess of Wellington [24], Katherine, Duchess of Westminster [25], and the Duchess of Westminster [26].

The Duchess of Manchester wearing the immense family tiara at the 1911 coronation

Some of the most magnificent diamonds were those worn by the Duchess of Northumberland, which are of immense size. The Duchess of Roxburghe wore a gorgeous diamond tiara, with true lovers' knots in diamonds, which formerly belonged to Marie Antoinette, on her shoulders [27]. Down the centre of her corsage were enormous emeralds surrounded with diamonds, and a drop of seven pearls, terminating in one enormous diamond, was worn on one side. The Duchess of Manchester wore a big, upstanding tiara of diamonds [28], a necklace to match, and other gorgeous jewels. The Duchess of Beaufort wore an all-round crown of diamonds rather far back on her head.

The Duchess of Marlborough wore a small diamond crown and rows of pearls around her neck, while her whole corsage was blazing with jewels. The Duchess of Portland wore the famous high tiara [29] with the Portland Diamond swinging in the centre, and instead of the ordinary veil, she wore lace lappets, as did the Duchess of Hamilton. The Duchess of Sutherland, who has recently had her tiara reset, had her lace lappets swathed round the head and hanging down on either side of the head in the most becoming fashion. The Duchess of Westminster wore a lace veil on her head with a diamond crown round it. One or two others adopted this fashion, among them Lady Chesterfield [30] and Lady Lytton [31]. Lady Mar and Kellie [32] looked very beautiful in her robes with a diamond tiara and a diamond necklace and the front of her dress covered with diamonds and pearls.

Lady Bute [33] wore magnificent jewels, including several large emeralds, and by her side sat Lady Waterford [34], and then came Lady Downshire [35], who wore no tiara on her head at all. Naturally it would be quite impossible to mention all the peeresses who were present, for very few absentees were noticed, but those particularly noted for their jewels were Lady Londonderry, who wore her enormous diamond crown tipped with pearls, certainly the highest in the Abbey [36]; Lady Derby [37], Lady Winchester [38], and Lady Granard [39], who positively blazed with diamonds; Lady Yarborough [40], Lady Tweeddale [41], Lady Powis [42], Lady Galway, Lady Garvagh [43], Katherine, Duchess of Westminster, Lady Craven [44], Lady Newborough [45], Florence, Lady Nurburnholme [46], Lady Carnarvon [47], Lady Mayo [48], Lady Lansdowne [49], and Lady Ripon [50], who sat to the extreme left of the marchionesses' row of seats, and who wore a great crowd of diamonds tipped with pearls.

Ladies-in-waiting: members of Queen Mary's household at the time of the coronation

It was very remarkable how all the headdresses of the peeresses varied. Some wore big all-round crowns of diamonds, others ordinary tiaras, while a few wore no jewels at all, contenting themselves with veils and their coronets, which were assumed when the Queen was crowned.

No two tiaras were alike in form. The Duchess of Newcastle, for instance, wore a crown of diamonds with an ostrich feather standing up in the centre. Lady Aberdeen [51] wore her famous oriental tiara of gold studded with diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and sapphires, and she wore a gauze veil over her head and hanging down the shoulders. She was one of the very few peeresses who wore a bouquet of flowers in the front of her gown.

Some magnificently embroidered kirtles were to be seen among the peeresses, probably one of the finest being that worn by Lady Suffolk [52]. This kirtle was embroidered with the family coat of arms worked in colored stones and gold thread. Lady Ormonde [53] wore very old but beautiful robes embroidered in bay leaves, which were at one time worn by her ancestress, the beautiful Duchess of Sutherland, who was Mistress of the Robes to Queen Victoria.

Princess Alexander of Teck (Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone) at the 1911 coronation (Photo: Grand Ladies Site)

As a rule, the greater number of peeresses' robes were simply bordered with ermine, but a few had heraldic devices embroidered in gold in the corners. Nearly all of them wore crimson velvet embroidered bags, in which were carried handkerchiefs, fans, and, in many cases, little boxes of chocolate or lozenges. These bags were very beautifully embroidered in gold and silver, and suspended from the waist by cords.

In the boxes set apart for personal friends of the Queen and Queen Alexandra [54] were to be seen Lady Beatrice Pole-Carew and Lady Constance Butler, Lady Mary Ward, Lady Theo Acheson, Lady Marjorie Manners and Lady Diana Manners, Lord Algernon Gordon-Lennox and Miss Ivy Lennox, Lady Irene Denison, Miss Sybil Codrington [55], and a few others whom, owing to the position of the box, it was difficult to see. Lady Paget was a resplendent figure in the King's box, where also were to be seen Mrs. William James, Mr. and Mrs. Leopold de Rothschild, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Sassoon, and Mme. Melba [56].

The Prince of Wales and Princess Mary at the coronation of their parents, King George V and Queen Mary

The various royal guests began to arrive shortly after ten o'clock, and they were conducted with much pomp and ceremony to their places. The German Crown Prince and Princess [57] were easily recognized, the latter wearing a dress of gold with a cloth of gold train. Prince Henry of Prussia [58] was a striking figure, wearing the cloak of the Order of the Garter. Cheers in the streets, which were distinctly heard in the Abbey, denoted the arrival of the Prince of Wales [59], who was habited in full Garter robes with the high beplumed hat which the recent photographs of his investiture have made familiar. The Prince's train was born by Lord Ashley [60], the little son of Lord and Lady Shaftesbury, and his coronet by Lord Revelstoke [61].

Then, according to precedence, came Prince Albert, in naval uniform, and Prince Henry and Prince George, in the Highland dress [62]. They were followed by Princess Mary, who wore a lace dress over satin with a blue velvet train, which was borne by Lady Bertha Dawkins [63]. Princess Mary wore round her neck two beautiful rows of pearls. The next to arrive in the royal box was the Princess Royal, with her two daughters, Princess Alexandra and Princess Maud of Fife [64]. The Princess Royal wore a dress of white brocaded satin, with the conventional train of purple velvet worn by all princesses of the blood royal.

The Connaughts at the 1911 coronation: The Duke of Connaught, Princess Patricia of Connaught, the Duchess of Connaught, Prince Arthur of Connaught, Crown Princess Margareta of Sweden, and Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden

Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, in white and silver brocade, with magnificent jewels, followed her elder sister, her train being carried by Miss Violet Douglas-Pennant [65]. The next to appear was Princess Henry of Battenberg, who, like the other members of the royal family, wore a brocaded silver dress with purple train [66]. She was followed by the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, who was resplendant with diamonds and sapphires. Next came the Duchess of Connaught, with Princess Victoria Patricia, their trains being borne by Miss Pelly and Miss Clementine Adam. The Duchess of Albany came next, with Lady Evelyn Moreton bearing her train. Princess Alexander of Teck, who looked perfectly charming in white and gold, her train of purple velvet being borne by Miss Edith Heron-Maxwell [67].

The Queen wore nothing on her head when she entered the Abbey, and her train was borne by Lady Eileen Butler, Lady Eileen Knox, Lady Victoria Carrington, Lady Mabell Ogilvy, Lady Dorothy Browne, and Lady Mary Dawson [68] -- Lady Eileen Butler and Lady Mary Dawson, the tallest of the young ladies, being placed at the end of the train. They wore very charming dresses of white satin trimmed with pearls, and in their hair they wore what appeared to be a large butterfly in pearls, with the regulation feathers and veils.

The Duchess of Devonshire, Mistress of the Robes (Photo: Grand Ladies Site)

Immediately after these train-bearers came the Duchess of Devonshire [69], wearing a very high all-round crown of diamonds, and her duchess's robes were heavily embroidered in gold. Following the Duchess were Lady Minto, Lady Shaftesbury, Lady Desborough, and Lady Ampthill [70]. Lady Minto's dress was of soft pink and gold brocade. Lady Shaftesbury wore a peculiar shade of what may be termed lemon-tinted gold, while Lady Desborough was in water-green brocade and Lady Ampthill in white and gold.

Lady Mary Trefusis, Lady Eva Dugdale, and Lady Katherine Coke [71] followed the Ladies of the Bedchamber, and then came the four Maids of Honour, Miss Venetia Baring, Miss Sybil Brodrick, Miss Mabel Gye, and Miss Katherine Villiers [72]. All these ladies just enumerated wore the Queen's cypher in diamonds on a red ribbon. Lord Herschell, as Vice-Chamberlain to the Queen, followed the Ladies-in-Waiting.


1. The coronation of King George V and Queen Mary of the United Kingdom was held at Westminster Abbey in London on June 22, 1911.

2. John Crichton-Stuart, 4th Marquess of Bute (1881-1947), son of the 3rd Marquess of Bute and great-grandson of the 13th Duke of Norfolk.

3. Hugh Lowther, 5th Earl of Lonsdale (1857-1944), known for exploring the Artic regions of Canada and for the line of sportswear named after him.

4. William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp (1872-1938), who served as Governor of New South Wales, was the leader of the Liberal Party in the House of Lords, and inspired the character of Lord Marchmain in Evelyn Waugh's Brideshead Revisited. He was also a brother-in-law of the 2nd Duke of Westminster.

5. George Cadogan, 5th Earl Cadogan (1840-1915), was a soldier and politician. His late first wife was Lady Beatrix Craven, the daughter of the 2nd Earl of Craven. In January 1911, he had remarried in Italy to a cousin, Adele, daughter of the Conte Palagi del Palagio. Adele outlived George by 45 years.

6. Charles Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 6th Marquess of Londonderry (1852-1915) was a Conservative politician, a former Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and a staunch opponent of Home Rule for Ireland. His wife, who was born Lady Theresa Chetwynd-Talbot, was a daughter of the 19th Earl of Shrewsbury.

7. James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury (1861-1947) was the son of the 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, who was Britain's Prime Minister at three different times in the late 19th century. James was a politician in his own right as well, serving as Leader of the House of Lords in the 1920s. His wife, Lady Cicely Gore (1867-1955), was a daughter of the 5th Earl of Arran. James and Cicely's daughter Mary later married the 10th Duke of Devonshire.

8. George Monckton-Arundell, 7th Viscount Galway [and 1st Baron Monckton of Selby] (1844-1931), a Conservative politician who served as an aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria, King Edward VII, and King George V. His wife was born Vere Gosling.

9. Algernon Seymour, 15th Duke of Somerset (1846-1923) who served in the military and later ran a ranch in America. His wife, Susan, published a detailed account of the couple's journey through Canada.

10. Gwendolen Fitzalan-Howard, Duchess of Norfolk (1877-1945) was the wife (and cousin) of the 15th Duke of Norfolk. She was the daughter of Marmaduke Constable-Maxwell, 11th Lord Herries of Terregles; on his death in 1908, she inherited his titles, becoming the 12th Lady Herries of Terregles in her own right.

11. Louise Somerset, Duchess of Beaufort (1864-1945) was the wife of the 9th Duke of Beaufort. She was born Louise Harford. Her daughter Blanche married the 6th Earl of St. Germans; her son, the 10th Duke of Beaufort, married Princess Mary of Teck (a niece of Queen Mary).

12. Nina Douglas-Hamilton, Duchess of Hamilton and Duchess of Brandon (1878-1951) was the wife of the 13th Duke of Hamilton and 10th Duke of Brandon. Her father was Major Robert Poole. Nina was a major advocate for animals and founder of charities focused on animal rights.

13. Violet Graham, Duchess of Montrose (1854-1940) was the wife of the 5th Duke of Montrose. She was the daughter of Sir Frederick Graham, 3rd Bt. and the granddaughter of the 12th Duke of Somerset.

14. Winifred Cavendish-Bentinck, Duchess of Portland (1863-1954) was the wife of the 6th Duke of Portland. She was born Winifred Dallas-Yorke. Like the Duchess of Hamilton, she was a major advocate for animal rights. She later served as Mistress of the Robes to Queen Alexandra.

15. Millicent Leveson-Gower, Duchess of Sutherland (1867-1955) was the wife of the 4th Duke of Sutherland. She was born Lady Millicent St. Clair-Erskine, daughter of the 4th Earl of Rosslyn. Her sister Sybil was Countess of Westmoreland; her half-sister Daisy was Countess of Warwick; her daughter Rosemary became Countess of Dudley. Millicent was known for her commitment to social reform and for her novels and non-fiction writing. She also earned the French Croix de guerre and a British Red Cross medal for her service in World War I.

16. Anne Innes-Ker, Dowager Duchess of Roxburghe (1854-1923) was the widow of the 7th Duke of Roxburghe and mother of the 8th Duke. Born Lady Anne Spencer-Churchill, she was a daughter of the 7th Duke of Marlborough (and an aunt of Winston Churchill). She was also Mistress of the Robes to Queen Victoria.

17. Katherine Osborne, Duchess of Leeds (1862-1952) was the wife of the 10th Duke of Leeds. She was born Lady Katherine Lambton, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Durham. Her daughter, Dorothy, married 15th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (an elder brother of the Queen Mother).

18. Violet Manners, Duchess of Rutland (1856-1937) was the wife of the 8th Duke of Rutland. Born Violet Lindsay, she was a granddaughter of the 24th Earl of Crawford. She was an accomplished sculptor; for much more about her very interesting life, see The Secret Rooms by Catherine Bailey.

19. Louisa Montagu Douglas Scott, Duchess of Buccleuch and Duchess of Queensberry (1836-1912) was the wife of the 6th Duke of Buccleuch and 8th Duke of Queensberry. Born Lady Louisa Hamilton, she was the daughter of the 1st Duke of Abercorn and a granddaughter of the 6th Duke of Bedford. Her sisters included the Countess of Lichfield, the Countess of Durham, the Marchioness of Lansdowne (see note #49), the Countess of Mount Edgcumbe, the Countess Winterton, the Duchess of Marlborough. Louisa was the grandmother of Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester and the great-great-grandmother of Sarah, Duchess of York. She was Mistress of the Robes to both Queen Victoria and Queen Alexandra.

20. Mary Innes-Ker, Duchess of Roxburghe (1878-1937) was the wife of the 8th Duke of Roxburghe. Born in America, she was the daughter of Ogden Goelet; May was one of the "dollar princesses" who married British aristocrats at the turn of the 20th century.

21. Helena Montagu, Duchess of Manchester (1877-1947) was the first wife of the 9th Duke of Manchester. Born Helena Zimmerman, she was an American heiress; her father was president of a railroad. The Manchesters divorced in 1931.

22. Kathleen Pelham-Clinton, Duchess of Newcastle (1872-1955) was the wife of the 7th Duke of Newcastle. Born Kathleen Candy, she was a granddaughter of the 3rd Baron Rossmore. Both the Duke and Duchess were animal lovers, and Kathleen was an important dog show judge and dog breeder.

23. Edith Percy, Duchess of Northumberland (1849-1913) was the wife of the 7th Duke of Northumberland. She was born Lady Edith Campbell, daughter of the 8th Duke of Argyll.

24. Kathleen Wellesley, Duchess of Wellington (d. 1927) was the wife of the 4th Duke of Wellington. Her father was Captain Robert Griffith Williams. Two of her sons were also Dukes of Wellington.

25. Katherine Grosvenor, Dowager Duchess of Westminster (1857-1941) was the (much younger) second wife of the 1st Duke of Westminster. She was the daughter of the 2nd Baron Chesham. The current Duke of Westminster is her great-grandson.

26. Constance (Shelagh) Grosvenor, Duchess of Westminster (1877-1970) was the first wife of the 2nd Duke of Westminster. Her sister Daisy was Princess of Pless. The Westminsters divorced in 1919, and she subsequently married her private secretary, Captain John Fitzpatrick Lewes.

27. I've not been able to find any link between the jewels of the Duchess of Roxburghe and Marie Antoinette. However, Mary did eventually have a small collection of French imperial pieces in her jewelry box. Her father, Ogden Goelet, bought several pieces at the auction of the French crown jewels in 1887, including a large diamond and pearl brooch that had belonged to Empress Eugenie, a pearl and diamond tiara, and a pair of pearl and diamond bracelets.

28. This enormous diamond tiara, which was made in 1903 by Cartier, is now in the collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum.

29. This enormous diamond tiara, which was made in 1902 by Cartier, is now in the Portland Collection, which is housed at the Harley Gallery in Nottinghamshire.

30. Enid Scudamore-Stanhope, Countess of Chesterfield (1878-1957) was the wife of the 10th Earl of Chesterfield. Her father was the 1st Baron Nunburnholme. The Chesterfields were involved in the world of racing, and one of their horses won the 1941 St Leger Stakes.

31. Pamela Bulwer-Lytton, Countess of Lytton (1873/4-1971) was the wife of the 2nd Earl of Lytton. Before she married him, she was romantically involved with Winston Churchill. Lord Lytton was born in India, and the couple were stationed there for several years while he served as Governor of Bengal and acting Viceroy.

32. Violet Erskine, Countess of Mar and Kellie (1868-1938) was the wife of the 12th Earl of Mar and 14th Earl of Kellie. She was born Lady Violet Ashley-Cooper; her father was the 8th Earl of Shaftesbury and her grandfather was the 3rd Marquess of Donegall.

33. Augusta Crichton-Stuart, Marchioness of Bute (1880-1947) was the wife of the 4th Marquess of Bute (see note #2). Augusta was a daughter of Sir Alan Bellingham, 4th Bt. and a granddaughter of the 2nd Earl of Gainsborough.

34. Beatrix Beresford, Marchioness of Waterford (1877-1953) was the wife of the 6th Marquess of Waterford. She was a daughter of the 5th Marquess of Lansdowne and a granddaughter of the 1st Duke of Abercorn. Lord Waterford died in December 1911, and seven years later, Beatrix married Osborne Beauclerk, 12th Duke of St Albans.

35. Evelyn Hill, Marchioness of Downshire (d. 1942) was the second wife of the 6th Marquess of Downshire.

36. Apparently Lady Londonderry didn't learn her lesson following the 1902 coronation, when this tiara famously fell off in the toilet and had to be retrieved by forceps.

37. Alice Stanley, Countess of Derby (1862-1957) was the wife of the 17th Earl of Derby. Her father was the 7th Duke of Manchester. She was Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Alexandra from 1901 to 1910.

38. Charlotte Paulet, Marchioness of Winchester (d. 1924) was the first wife of the 16th Marquess of Winchester.

39. Beatrice Forbes, Countess of Granard (1883-1972) was the wife of the 8th Earl of Granard. She was another of the American "dollar princesses"; her father was Ogden Mills, a wealthy financier who was involved in thoroughbred racing. Beatrice and her husband were also major figures in the racing world -- Lord Granard was King George V's Master of the Horse. Beatrice's daughter, Lady Eileen, later married the 5th Marquess of Bute (son of the Lord and Lady Bute mentioned here).

40. Marcia Pelham, Countess of Yarborough (1863-1926) was the wife of the 4th Earl of Yarborough. She inherited the titles of 13th Baroness Conyers and 7th Baroness Fauconberg in her own right.

41. Candida Hay, Marchioness of Tweeddale (1858-1925) was the wife of the 10th Marquess of Tweeddale (who died in December 1911). Candida was Italian -- her father's name was Vincenzo Bartolucci -- but she was raised in England.

42. Violet Herbert, Countess of Powis (1865-1929) was the wife of the 4th Earl of Powis. Her sister, Marcia, was Countess of Yarborough (see note #40). Violet was also a peeress in her own right, inheriting the barony of Darcy de Knayth from her father.

43. Florence Canning, Baroness Garvagh (d. 1926) was the wife of the 3rd Baron Garvagh.

44. Cornelia Craven, Countess of Craven (1877-1961) was the wife of the 4th Earl of Craven. Cornelia was yet another American "dollar princess," daughter of Bradley Martin, a wealthy banker.

45. Grace Wynn, Baroness Newborough (d.1939) was the wife of the 4th Baron Newborough. She was yet another American peeress, born Grace Carr of Kentucky.

46. Florence Wilson, Lady Nunburnholme (1853-1932) was the widow of the 1st Baron Nunburnholme. She was born Florence Wellesley; her father was a nephew of the 1st Duke of Wellington.

47. Almina Herbert, Countess of Carnarvon (1876-1969) was the wife of the 5th Earl of Carnarvon. She was the illegitimate daughter of Alfred de Rothschild, the famous banker, who provided a half-million pound dowry for her on her wedding. The Carnarvon home, Highclere Castle, is recognizable to us today as the setting of Downton Abbey. The current Lady Carnarvon has written a book about her: Lady Almina and the Real Downton Abbey.

48. Geraldine Bourke, Countess of Mayo (d. 1944) was the wife of the 7th Earl Mayo. She was a granddaughter of the 4th Earl of Bessborough and a great-granddaughter of the 8th Earl of Coventry.

49. Maud Petty-Fitzmaurice, Marchioness of Lansdowne (1850-1932) was the wife of the 5th Marquess of Lansdowne. She was born Lady Maud Hamilton, a daughter of the 1st Duke of Abercorn. Her sisters included the Countess of Lichfield, the Countess of Durham, the Duchess of Buccleuch (see note #19), the Countess of Mount Edgcumbe, the Countess Winterton, the Duchess of Marlborough. Maud was a Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Alexandra. Her husband served as Governor-General of Canada and Viceroy of India.

50. Gwladys Robinson, Marchioness of Ripon (1859-1917) was the wife of the 2nd Marquess of Ripon. Her father was the 1st Baron Herbert of Lea; her mother was the writer Elizabeth Herbert. Gwladys's first husband was the 4th Earl of Lonsdale (brother of the Lord Lonsdale mentioned here -- see note #3). Two of her brothers became Earls of Pembroke; another brother served as the British ambassador to the United States; a sister, Maud, married the theologian Friedrich von Hügel; and her youngest sister, Elizabeth, was the wife of the composer Sir Charles Hubert Parry, whose coronation anthem, "I Was Glad," was played in Westminster Abbey for King George V and Queen Mary.

51. Ishbel Hamilton-Gordon, Countess of Aberdeen [later Marchioness of Aberdeen and Temair] (1857-1939) was the wife of the 7th Earl of Aberdeen, who was created 1st Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair in 1916. Ishbel was a daughter of the 1st Baron Tweedmouth. Her husband served as Governor-General of Canada and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland; she became very involved in social and philanthropic activities in both places. She was also the first woman to receive an honorary university degree in Canada.

52. Margaret "Daisy" Howard, Countess of Suffolk and Countess of Berkshire (1879-1968) was the wife of the 19th Earl of Suffolk and 12th Earl of Berkshire. She was another American "dollar princess"; her father was the Chicago businessman Levi Leiter. Daisy's sister, Mary, was the wife of the 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, who famously served as Viceroy of India. Lord Suffolk was Lord Curzon's aide-de-camp; he met Daisy when she visited India for the 1903 Delhi Durbar. Suffolk later died in World War I.

53. Elizabeth Harriet Butler, Marchioness of Ormonde (1856-1928) was the wife of the 3rd Marquess of Ormonde. She was the eldest daughter of the 1st Duke of Westminster and his first wife, Lady Constance Sutherland-Leveson-Gower. The "beautiful Duchess of Sutherland" mentioned here was her grandmother, Harriet, Mistress of the Robes to Queen Victoria. The Queen's affection for Harriet and her fellow ladies led to the Bedchamber Crisis of 1839.

54. Following custom, Queen Alexandra did not attend the 1911 coronation. In 1937, Queen Mary broke with this tradition and attended the coronation of her son and daughter-in-law.

55. Lady Beatrice Pole-Carew and Lady Constance Butler were the daughters of the 3rd Marquess of Ormonde; Lady Mary Ward and Lady Theodosia Acheson were daughters of the 4th Earl of Gosford; Lady Marjorie Manners and Lady Diana Manners were daughters of the 8th Duke of Rutland; Lord Algernon Gordon-Lennox was a younger son of the 6th Duke of Richmond and the father of Miss Ivy Lennox, who later became Duchess of Portland; Lady Irene Denison was the daughter of the 2nd Earl of Londesborough and the future Marchioness of Carisbrooke; Cecilia Grace Sybil Codrington was the granddaughter of the 1st Earl of Londesborough.

56. In the King's box: the society hostess Lady Paget, nee Minnie Stevens of Massachusetts; the society hostess Evelyn James, wife of the American merchant William Dodge James; banker and racing enthusiast Leopold de Rothschild and his wife, Marie; banker Arthur Sassoon and his wife, Louise (sister of Marie de Rothschild); and the Australian soprano Nellie Melba.

57. Wilhelm (1882-1951) and Cecilie (1886-1954) of Prussia, German Crown Prince and Princess. Wilhelm was the grandson of Princess Victoria, the eldest child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.

58. Prince Henry of Prussia (1862-1929) was the third child of Princess Victoria, daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, and Emperor Frederick III of Germany. His wife, Princess Irene of Hesse and by Rhine, was a daughter of Princess Alice, another daughter of Victoria and Albert.

59. Read all about the Garter investiture of the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII, later the Duke of Windsor) over here!

60. Anthony Ashley-Cooper, Lord Ashley (1900-1947) was the eldest son of the 9th Earl of Shaftesbury. He died young of heart disease, and the earldom passed directly from his father to his son, Anthony (1938-2004).

61. John Baring, 2nd Baron Revelstoke (1863-1929).

62. Three of King George V and Queen Mary's younger sons: Prince Albert (1895-1952) later Duke of York, later King George VI; Prince Henry (1900-1974), later Duke of Gloucester; and Prince George (1902-1942), later Duke of Kent. Prince John did not attend.

63. King George V and Queen Mary's only daughter, Princess Mary (1897-1965), later Countess of Harewood and Princess Royal. Her train-bearer, Lady Bertha Dawkins, was one of Queen Mary's ladies-in-waiting.

64. Princess Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife (1867-1931) was a younger sister of King George V. Her elder daughter, Princess Alexandra, became 2nd Duchess of Fife in 1912; she married her cousin, Prince Arthur of Connaught, in 1913. Louise's younger daughter, Princess Maud, later married the 11th Earl of Southesk.

65. Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll (1848-1939) was the sixth child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. The sentence is strangely written, because she must have followed her elder sister -- Princess Helena (1846-1923), another daughter of Victoria and Albert -- but Helena gets no mention in the article. Both Louise and Helena were aunts of King George V.

66. Princess Beatrice (1857-1944), the youngest child of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. She was the widow of Prince Henry of Battenberg, and by 1911, her daughter Ena was the Queen of Spain. She was another aunt of King George V.

67. Here's a rundown of the rest of the royal ladies listed. The Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1853-1920) was born Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia; she married Victoria and Albert's second son, Alfred. The Duchess of Connaught (1860-1917), born Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia, was the wife of Victoria and Albert's third son, Arthur. Princess Victoria Patricia of Connaught (1886-1974), later Lady Patricia Ramsay, was the Duchess of Connaught's younger daughter. The Duchess of Albany (1861-1922), born Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont, was the widow of Victoria and Albert's youngest son, Leopold. Princess Alexander of Teck (1883-1981) was the Duchess of Albany's daughter, Alice; she married her cousin, Prince Alexander of Teck, in 1904 and was later titled Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone.

68. Queen Mary's train-bearers were all daughters of earls. Lady Eileen Butler (later Duchess of Sutherland) was the daughter of the 7th Earl of Lanesborough; Lady Eileen Knox was the daughter of the 5th Earl of Ranfurly; Lady Victoria Wynn-Carrington was the daughter of Earl Carrington (later the 1st Marquess of Lincolnshire); Lady Mabell Ogilvy, daughter of the 11th Earl of Airlie; Lady Dorothy Browne, daughter of the 5th Earl of Kenmare; and Lady Mary Dawson, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Dartrey.

69. Evelyn Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire (1870-1960), wife of the 9th Duke of Devonshire. She was the daughter of the 5th Marquess of Lansdowne (see note #49). She served as Queen Mary's Mistress of the Robes from 1910 to 1916, and then again from 1921 until 1953.

70. These were Queen Mary's Ladies of the Bedchamber: Mary Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, Countess of Minto; Constance Ashley-Cooper, Countess of Shaftesbury; Ethel Grenfall, Baroness Desborough; and Margaret Russell, Baroness Ampthill.

71. These were Queen Mary's Women of the Bedchamber: Lady Mary Hepburn-Stuart-Forbes-Trefusis, daughter of the 6th Earl of Beauchamp; Lady Eva Dugdale, daughter of the 4th Earl of Warwick; and Lady Katherine Coke, daughter of the 2nd Earl of Wilton.

72. In 1931, Katherine Villers wrote a book, Memoirs of a Maid of Honour, about the experience of serving in the role.