|Empress Josephine by Robert Lefevre, ca. 1805 [source]|
"Hints on Wearing of Jewels"
(originally appeared in the New York Times, 30 Nov 1913)
The Empress Joséphine  was noted as a well-dressed woman. It is said that she had the same allowance that Napoleon's second wife, Marie Louise , later had, and that both of these royal ladies patronized the same dressmaker. But Joséphine always looked better dressed than Marie Louise.
|Empress Josephine by Antoine-Jean Gros, ca. 1808 [source]|
|Josephine by Firmin Massot, ca. 1812 [source]|
|Empress Josephine by Andrea Appiani, ca. 1807 [source]|
|Josephine by François Gérard, ca. 1801 [source]|
1. Joséphine de Beauharnais (1763-1814) was the first wife of Napoleon Bonaparte and, therefore, France's empress consort from 1804-1810, when Napoleon divorced her. Her style of dress was incredibly influential, though calling her use of jewelry "minimal" is not precisely accurate.
2. Marie Louise of Austria (1791-1847) was Napoleon's second wife and France's empress consort from 1810-1814. She was the daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II, and Maria Theresa of Naples. Marie Louise was created Duchess of Parma by the Treaty of Fontainebleau in 1814, and she ruled the duchy until her death.
3. Joséphine definitely wore more than one jewel at a time. She did, however, often wear matching sets or parures of coordinating jewels.
4. Marie Antoinette of Austria (1755-1793) was France's queen consort from 1774-1791. She was the wife of King Louis XVI of France; both she and her husband were guillotined in Paris in the aftermath of the 1789 French Revolution.